SoundEffects - An Interdisciplinary Journal of Sound and Sound Experience Aarhus University en-US SoundEffects - An Interdisciplinary Journal of Sound and Sound Experience 1904-500X <p style="background: white;"><span style="font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">The journal allow the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions. T</span></span><span style="font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; font-size: 12pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-fareast-language: DA; mso-ansi-language: DA; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;">he journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restrictions.<br></span></p> Sound and Participation Iben Have Vadim Keylin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-22 2020-01-22 9 1 01 04 10.7146/se.v9i1.118244 Co-consuming a “fun addiction” <p>Once considered an obsolete technology, modular synthesizers have experienced an unanticipated renaissance since the 1990s. While the reemergence of interest in modular synthesizers is attributable to a variety of factors, the internet has played an especially important role in facilitating the growth of a distributed, virtual scene around these instruments. Though several formats exist, Eurorack’s commercial and cultural growth has been the most dramatic. Once the province solely of specialists, Eurorack modules are now manufactured by large firms like Roland and Behringer and sold by mainstream music retailers like Guitar Center and Sweetwater.</p> <p>For many users, a Eurorack system is a physical manifestation of their musical tastes and aspirations. The planning, purchasing, and realization of a system is thus a constitutive element of self-identification and belonging within the scene. But while Eurorack users privilege customization to an intense degree, the modality of their choice is strongly mediated by communal wisdom and the personal testimony of distant others. How do scene members negotiate these tensions? In order to explicate these dynamics, I analyze two interrelated phenomena that are characteristic of the milieu: (1) personal narratives of an individual’s journey through modular synthesis and Eurorack; and (2) the instructional and promotional roles played by user-made demonstration videos of Eurorack modules. Both reveal a gap between the imagined and actual affordances of a system and its user, a discrepancy that I address by introducing the notion of “drift.”</p> <p>The marked heterogeneity of Eurorack and the potential of a system for future modification strongly distinguishes it from other formats, and I conclude by discussing Eurorack as an instrument that is never “finished.” As such, Eurorack invites us to consider a musical instrument not just as a bounded object or assemblage, but as an ongoing process of individuation rooted in practices of co-consumption.</p> Farley Miller ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-22 2020-01-22 9 1 5 19 10.7146/se.v9i1.112699 Noise over signal <p>While participatory culture has been of special interest to scholars for nearly three decades, much of the focus has centered on digitally networked contexts. The digital age has indeed transformed our approaches to listening to music and how we operate as fans of music; these approaches can weave together the new and the old, and are enacted among a variety of spaces, objects, and relationships. We explore how the re-emergence of one such object in the digital age — the LP — has produced social arrangements that perhaps excavate older listening practices but do so in ways that have been affected by the mediascape more generally. We offer the concept of <em>phonography culture</em>: a term that emphasizes the social practices of those who not only curate and collect vinyl records but communicate through them in participatory activities including listening parties, vinyl nights at local bars, Facebook groups, and sites of e-commerce. We share the case study of Record Nite, a semi-regular gathering of phonography culture participants, who take turns playing one side of an LP on a given theme, revealing in their fandom and reveling in and encouraging that of others. Over the course of an evening, ten to twenty friends connect over their own “noise” — their experiences, histories, and knowledge of artists, albums, and genres—while simultaneously listening to LPs together. These phonographic, cultural interactions are revelatory because they draw our attention away from individualized and digital listening, which isolate signal, and make space for social and aural noise. That noise is infused with fandom and participation, as well as elements of memory, meaning making, and nostalgia.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>NB: </strong>The article contains sound examples.&nbsp;In order to listen to embedded audio files, you must first download the pdf file and then open it with Adobe Acrobat.</p> Jason W Luther Patrick Williams ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-22 2020-01-22 9 1 20 37 10.7146/se.v9i1.116688 Algorithmic interactive music generation in videogames <p>In this article, I review the concept of algorithmic generative and interactive music and discuss the advantages and challenges of its implementation in videogames. Excessive repetition caused by low interactivity in music sequences through gameplay has been tackled primarily by using random or sequential containers, coupled with overlapping rules and adaptive mix parameters, as demonstrated in the Dynamic Music Units in Audiokinetic’s Wwise middleware. This approach provides a higher variety through re-combinatorial properties of music tracks and also a responsive and interactive music stream. However, it mainly uses prerecorded music sequences that reappear and are easy to recognize throughout gameplay. Generative principles such as single-seed design have been occasionally applied in game music scoring to generate material. Some of them are complemented with rules and are assigned to sections with low emotional requirements, but support for real-time interaction in gameplay situations, although desirable, is rarely found.<br>While algorithmic note-by-note generation can offer interactive flexibility and infinite diversity, it poses significant challenges such as achieving human-like performativity and producing a distinctive narrative style through measurable parameters or program arguments. Starting with music generation, I examine conceptual implementations and technical challenges of algorithmic composition studies that use Markov models, a-life/evolutionary music, generative grammars, agents, and artificial neural networks/deep learning. For each model, I evaluate rule-based strategies for interactive music transformation using parameters provided by contextual gameplay situations. Finally, I propose a compositional tool design based in modular instances of algorithmic music generation, featuring stylistic interactive control in connection with an audio engine rendering system.</p> Alvaro E. Lopez Duarte ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-22 2020-01-22 9 1 38 59 10.7146/se.v9i1.118245 Sound production as a cultural practice <p>Referring to a notion of cultural practice understood as a constitution of social identity and meaningful everyday performance, this paper questions the practice of music production outside the technological centers of the global North. The author traces relations between the global standards of studio work and the case of “record culture” in Mzuzu, Malawi. On a tangible level, the production of sound and music in Mzuzu is bricolage, a creative combination of varied devices and means within an economy of scarcity.<br>However, sound production in its intangible dimension reveals itself as a practice of mediation between material and immaterial spheres. Spatially, it combines local aesthetics with globally unified technologies. This mediation gathers different temporalities (old, “tribal” rhythms and digital sounds) with cosmologies (i.e. invocation to holy ghosts with gospel music, in contrast to local possession cults). Moreover, people embody many of these practices as opposed to expressing them discursively. As an embodied practice, the production contains social, non-discursive memory while, at the same time, it has a potential for construction of social worlds. Hence, sound production constitutes a sense-making practice that establishes relations between musicians, listeners, and other social actors.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>NB: </strong>The article contains sound examples.&nbsp;In order to listen to embedded audio files, you must first download the pdf file and then open it with Adobe Acrobat.</p> Piotr Cichocki ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-22 2020-01-22 9 1 60 80 10.7146/se.v9i1.118246 Community as a discursive construct in contemporary Danish singing culture <p>Community singing—the informal practice of collective singing at social occasions—has traditionally served various societal purposes. Recently, however, new types of community singing events have emerged in Denmark that make the singing act itself the central purpose for gathering rather than an appendage. Such events indicate that community singing is becoming more about participating in a performance and less about consolidating an ideological common ground. On the basis of an analysis of present public discourse, this article pursues the questions of how singing is perceived to construct community, and what kind of community can be formed when the importance of semantic song content fades. In conclusion, it is proposed that modern singing events, rather than merely reinforcing existing communities, now produce self-reliant, musically imagined communities.</p> Lea Wierød Borčak ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-22 2020-01-22 9 1 81 97 10.7146/se.v9i1.113023 Crash, boom, bang <p>Audience participation is a prominent thread running through much of sound art practice, yet it remains largely absent from the sound art scholarship. In this article, I argue that the most widespread methodologies employed in sound art research – roughly split into the phenomenological branch and the object-oriented branch – are ill equipped to tackle the questions of sociality and participation. Instead, I offer a framework for the study of participation in sound art – and, more broadly, for sound aesthetics in general – rooted in the pragmatist tradition. My starting point is John Dewey’s conceptualization of an artwork as an aesthetic experience developing in cycles of doing and undergoing – a structure, he claims, present in both the creative process and the reception of artworks, putting them on equal footing. I then expand this notion by turning to the contemporary pragmatist trends in creativity studies, ANT and affordance theory, introducing the concepts of we-creativity, mediation and affordance. The second half of the article focuses specifically on affordance – a relationship between a sound artwork and its audience delimiting and facilitating the possibilities for participation. I discuss the low-level affordances (facilitating elementary action) for creative listening and soundmaking and high-level affordances (facilitating complex behaviors) for creativity, experimentation and connectivity. I conclude that the pragmatist framework allows to go beyond the subject- or object-centeredness of phenomenological or object-oriented methodologies, bringing to the foreground the relational and social character of sound art.</p> Vadim Keylin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-22 2020-01-22 9 1 98 115 10.7146/se.v9i1.118243 Silences and policies in the shared listening: Ultra-red and Escuchatorio <p>With this article we want to offer a critical approach to participatory practices within sound art. To this end, we will analyse the work of two groups of sound artists who have placed participation and collaboration at the centre of their work and of their definition of sound art itself, using two very different approaches: Ultra-red and Escuchatorio. Both groups understand listening as a political action which always implies a relationship with others and with the environment. However, their very different ways of activating the collective listening may encourage us to consider how collaborative art is understood and practised at a time when the interest in participation from different artistic and cultural institutions (also political) keeps growing.<br>By considering Escuchatorio and Ultra-red, we want to ask ourselves how it can be decisive who proposes to perform the sound action: whether it is a community in struggle or a group of artists, or a gallery/institution. Different proposers generate different receptors/participants and also different ways of understanding which values are at stake and how they are distributed. Who is able to participate and how it can be done entail different degrees of involvement, impact and barriers. For a specific group that meets in a specific place participatory art can foreground the differences between people who are close to each other (Ultra-red), whereas the participation of anyone who can use any type of recording device and upload recordings to the network emphasises the similarities between people who are otherwise strangers (the expanded radio of Escuchatorio).</p> Susana Jiménez Carmona ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-22 2020-01-22 9 1 116 131 10.7146/se.v9i1.112931 The soundscape of Islamic populism <p>Focusing on the failed coup attempt organized by a faction within the Turkish Armed Forces on July 15, 2016, this paper examines the soundscape of Islamic populism (Hadiz, 2016) as embraced by Turkey’s ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP) and its affective-auditory publics. Drawing on Althusser’s theories of ideology and interpellation concerning the Islamic call (Spadola, 2014), I explore AKP’s strategic use of Islamic sound as affect in governmentalizing urban space in order to understand the role that sound played in galvanizing support against the attempted coup. During the first twenty-four hours of the coup attempt, systematically regenerating discursive modes of Islamic rhetoric and sounds, utilizing the narratives of democracy, nationalism, and treachery to mobilize its publics, AKP re-cultivated the already existing polarized identity politics and recreated the sectarian spaces of belonging and otherness. I argue that AKP’s appropriation of sonic and aural qualities of Islam – particularly the public recitation of Sala (a form of Islamic call) – purposefully rechannelled the “ethical listening” (Hirschkind, 2006) of pious selves into a politically (re)functionalized listening in the populist reproduction of an Islamic soundscape. Such reproduction of the urban soundscape was responded to in a variety of ways by the mobilized auditory publics in service of the party while creating silenced private spaces of opposition.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>NB: </strong>The article contains sound examples.&nbsp;In order to listen to embedded audio files, you must first download the pdf file and then open it with Adobe Acrobat.</p> Nil Basdurak ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-22 2020-01-22 9 1 132 148 10.7146/se.v9i1.112804